Peacebuilding and Reconciliation: An Introduction


Basque Region of Spain

In 1959, remnants of the Spanish separatist movement EKIN, reorganized as ETA - Euskadi ta Askatasuna (?Basque Fatherland and Liberty?). ETA was initially a political movement whose objective was to reinforce defense of the Basque region and, eventually, seek its independence. However, as the years progressed, violence became its main tool against the Franco regime, highlighted by the 1973 assassination of Admiral Luis Carrero Blanco. Even as democracy was restored in 1979, ETA terrorist activity continued. Today ETA remains active, despite efforts to implement ceasefires as recently as 2006.